Kazakhstan, the largest segment of the Eurasian Steppe, was the home and crossroads for numerous groups of people throughout history. Human activity in the region began with the extinct Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus 1 million – 800,000 years ago in the Karatau Mountains, as well as the Caspian and Balkhash areas. Neanderthals were present 140,000 – 40,000 years ago in the Karatau Mountains and Central Kazakhstan. Modern Homo sapiens appeared 40,000 – 12,000 years ago in Southern, Central, and Eastern Kazakhstan. After the end of the last glacial period, 12,500 – 5,000 years ago, human settlement spread across the whole of Kazakhstan, eventually leading to the extinction of large animals (mammoth, woolly rhinoceros). The hunter-gatherer communes invented bows and boats, and used domesticated wolves and traps for hunting.
The Neolithic Revolution was marked by the appearance of animal husbandry and agriculture, giving rise to the Atbasar,Kelteminar, Botai, Mokanjar, Ust-Narym, and other cultures. The Botai culture (3600–3100 BCE) is credited with the first domestication of horses. Ceramics and polished stone tools also appeared during this period. The 4th – 3rd millennia witnessed the beginning of metal production, manufacture of copper tools, and use of casting molds. In the 2nd millennium, ore mining developed in Central Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan (i/ˌkæzækˈstɑːn, ˌkɑː-, -zɑːk-, -ˈstæn/;Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country in Central Asia, with a minor part west of the Ural River and thus in Europe. Kazakhstan is the world's largest landlocked country by land area and the ninth largest country in the world. Its territory of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100sqmi) is larger than all of Western Europe. By 2006, Kazakhstan had become the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry. The country has vast mineral resources.
Kazakh wine is wine made in Kazakhstan. The roots of the Kazakh wine industry can be traced to the 7th century AD when grapevines were brought to the region from neighboring Uzbekistan and China. While only around 4% of the land in Kazakhstan is ideally situated for viticulture, the country does manage to produce over 6.2 million gallons (236,000 hl) of wine annually from 32,120 acres (13,000ha). Buoyed by its mineral wealth, the country is an enthusiastic consumer of wine but must import 80% of the 30 m bottles it drinks.
The earliest evidence of viticulture in Kazakhstan appear during the 7th century AD around Shymkent and in the foot hills of Tian Shan in Almaty Province near the Kazakh-Kyrgyzstan border. Vines were believed to have been introduced to the area by traders from the Xinjiang province of China and the Fergana and Samarqand regions of Uzbekistan. Throughout most of Kazakhstan's history, commercial winemaking was conducted on a small scale. In the early 20th century, state-run vineyards in Almaty, Shymkent and Taraz were the largest producers. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there has been renewed interest in the Kazakhstan wine industry with Russia becoming a leading trading partner in Kazakh wine.
Kazakhstan is the Kazakh state television. It started broadcasting on March 8, 1958. It is a part of the RTRC JSC Kazakhstan. The station broadcasts around the clock in the Kazakh language.
The TV channel is broadcasting from Astana (from December 1, 2012 broadcasts have been moved into a new media center QazMedia Ortalygy in Astana ) and Alma-Ata and has a regional network of branches in all regions of Kazakhstan. Its program schedule consists of information, educational programs, films and TV series in the Kazakh language. In the regions, the channel has different names (Kazakhstan Taraz, Kazakhstan – Friendly, etc. ), as local broadcast network affiliates controlled by RTRC JSC Kazakhstan.
The first national television channel in Kazakhstan aired for the first time in 1958. At the time broadcasting was limited to 5 hours a day. By 1987 Kazakhstan was ranked fourth among all Soviet republics by the amount of broadcasting, and second by the number of feature films and documentaries produced.